Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement Iran

The Western parties to the JCPOA also argue that certain unique provisions of the agreement, with the exception of the Iranian CSA and PA, should be incorporated into an “extended verification standard” in the future.82 Some of these elements could be accepted by most states that have few difficulties, such as those that allow the IAEA to improve the standard of protective equipment technology. Western countries could encourage the IAEA to take further steps in Iran to implement a large-scale environmental sampling program that could serve as a general model. Other measures within the JCPOA may be less readily taken elsewhere. The IAEA`s approach to Iran has somewhat departed from its conception of state protection measures. Instead of setting up an SER, the Agency has regularly reported developments to the IAEA Board of Governors. While the implementation of THE SLAs has become a routine at the operational level for many countries, the high visibility and priority of the Iran probe meant that it would be managed at the highest level within the Agency by the Director General and the head of the safeguards department. According to the IAEA, there are 175 states with comprehensive protection agreements by June 2020. Each year, the IAEA reports to the Agency`s Board of Governors, made up of IAEA member states, on the implementation of security measures. Before February 2003, when ElBaradei was returning from Iran after seeing Iran build a uranium enrichment plant, Iran had never been cited for violating its protection agreement during its 29 years of entry into force. Nevertheless, in the 1990s, the IAEA was confronted with reports that Iran was involved in undeclared nuclear activities. This information did not lead to confirmation by the IAEA that Iran had not declared its nuclear activities. A former director of security then claimed that in early 2002, just before the IAEA was first informed by member states of allegations that Iran was building an enrichment plant, IAEA staff “suspected that Iran had not complied with its CSA for about five years.” 23 If the IAEA draws a broader conclusion for a state, it can put in place “integrated safeguards.” that are tailored to each state.

As a result, the resulting security measures will be less cumbersome and less costly for the state. Over the past quarter century, the IAEA has adopted security measures that depart from routine accounting of reported materials and activities, using universal, non-explicitly discriminatory implementation criteria, and a more risk-based approach, in which implementation is based on unique conditions that apply in each country for which safeguards are applicable. However, States seek assurance that adjustments made by the IAEA result in objective and technically justified safety judgments that are not subject to political or other subjective considerations.

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