UK Government website on trade and investment policy: www.gov.uk/government/topics/trade-and-investment free trade agreements – US Department of Commerce: www.trade.gov/fta/ Bi – and multilateral free trade agreements and other forms of regional economic law duplicate WTO law. These agreements range from free trade areas to unions, including more ambitious forms of regional economic integration… (Herdegen). Australia-India Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement: dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/aifta/pages/australia-india-comprehensive-economic-cooperation-agreement.aspx While tariff preferences in trade agreements may benefit certain industrial sectors, the Commission has found little evidence that Australia`s recent bilateral agreements have brought considerable trade benefits. The main factors influencing decisions to trade in other countries are probably outside the scope of these agreements. The study concluded that while preferential trade agreements could increase national income, the net effect is likely to be modest. FTA – Boost for Brexit as SIX MORE wealthy countries seek free trade deals with the UK: www.express.co.uk/news/uk/708266/Boost-Brexit-six-wealthy-countries-free-trade-deals-UK?_ga=1.226068767.486536026.1473337135 The result of the release of these agreements is that the current international trade rules are now made up of a number of instruments. The WTO`s multilateral agreement, which covers 161 countries or customs territories, is at the forefront. Added to this are the traditional trading blocs with their own agreements, some of which provide for deep integration or customs unions between Member States. Added to this is the complexity of the battle for bilateral trade agreements between the different countries. All of these agreements – more than 400 in total – coexist and create a mix of overlapping, supporting and perhaps contradictory commitments.
The integration of the Doha Development Round trade negotiations has made bilateral and regional free trade agreements an important alternative. These agreements have multiplied in recent years and all major trading countries are now conducting serious bilateral trade negotiations with several trading partners. This second edition features a new collection of case studies that illustrate the latest trends and innovations in bilateral and regional trade agreements (JIA). The selected JIA are a good sample of regional differences and cover the main substantive issues. Each case study, conducted by leading scientists and practitioners, offers a comprehensive analysis of the BRTA presented, and the format allows for quick comparisons. China-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement: www.mfat.govt.nz/en/trade/free-trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements-in-force/china-fta/text-of-the-new-zealand-china-fta-agreement/ . Free trade agreements face the main problems of (a) the gradual reduction and permanent elimination of tariffs; (b) the elimination of non-tariff barriers; (c) the removal of obstacles to the free movement of investment; (d) the provision of more services in foreign markets; (e) provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights; (f) the lifting of most customs restrictions; and (g) the establishment of appropriate rules of origin. (Rosenberg). . .