The Authorization Act included in the 1977 Amendments is Section 233 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C§ 433),13 which allows the President to enter into bilateral tabonation agreements with countries that have a social security system similar to that of the United States. Article 233 establishes tabination agreements as agreements between Congress and the executive branch that have essentially the same legal value as treaties, but do not require full ratification by the Senate. For an agreement to enter into force, the president must submit it to Congress, where he must rest for 60 days before the two chambers where one or both chambers meet; this period must elapse without either of the two decisions of disapproval being taken. As the largest recipient country, Canada has signed bilateral agreements with more than 50 countries. In addition, the aggregation of third countries for migrant workers will be made possible by the Member States of 9 of the 13 States and territories that have signed and ratified the CARICOM Convention [see multilateral agreements]. These include Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. Since the 1970s, U.S. negotiators have entered into bilateral agreements with 28 major trading partners to coordinate social security and benefits schemes for people who live and work in more than one country in their working lives. Known as “totalization agreements,” they have a similar function and structure to contracts and are legally classified as agreements between Congress and the executive branch entered into under the law. The agreements have three main objectives: to eliminate double taxation of income, to protect benefits for workers who have divided their careers between the United States and another country, and to allow full payment of benefits to residents of both countries. This article briefly describes the totalization agreements, tells their story, and reviews the proposals for modernization and improvement.
Since the 1990s, the EU has concluded social security agreements with various Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) providing for the portability of benefits for Maghreb workers working in the EU. In 1995, the Barcelona Declaration continued negotiations aimed at improving social security agreements between the EUROMED partnership countries. The cooperation agreements were relaunched in 2008 under the name of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), which coordinates social security between the EU and other partners. Most U.S. agreements eliminate double self-employment coverage by going to the employee`s country of residence. For example, under the agreement between the United States and Sweden, an independent dual-coverage U.S. citizen living in Sweden is only covered by the Swedish system and excluded from U.S. coverage. The FCN Treaty with Italy, which entered into force in 1949 and was amended in 1951, explicitly called on the United States and the Italian Republic to enter into negotiations on a bilateral social security agreement. .